Wavelet analysis of the LF radio signals collected by the European VLF/LF network from July 2009 to April 2011

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Flavia Righetti
Pier Francesco Biagi
Tommaso Maggipinto
Luigi Schiavulli
Teresa Ligonzo
Anita Ermini
Iren Adeline Moldovan
Adrian Moldovan
Aydin Buyuksarac
Hugo Gonzales Silva
Mourad Bezzeghoud
Michael E. Contadakis
Dimitrios Arabelos
Thomas Xenos


In 2008, a radio receiver that works in very low frequency (VLF; 20-60 kHz) and LF (150-300 kHz) bands was developed by an Italian factory. The receiver can monitor 10 frequencies distributed in these bands, with the measurement for each of them of the electric field intensity. Since 2009, to date, six of these radio receivers have been installed throughout Europe to establish a ‘European VLF/LF Network’. At present, two of these are into operation in Italy, and the remaining four are located in Greece, Turkey, Portugal and Romania. For the present study, the LF radio data collected over about two years were analysed. At first, the day-time data and the night-time data were separated for each radio signal. Taking into account that the LF signals are characterized by ground-wave and sky-wave propagation modes, the day-time data are related to the ground wave and the night-time data to the sky wave. In this framework, the effects of solar activity and storm activity were defined in the different trends. Then, the earthquakes with M ≥5.0 that occurred over the same period were selected, as those located in a 300-km radius around each receiver/transmitter and within the 5th Fresnel zone related to each transmitter-receiver path. Where possible, the wavelet analysis was applied on the time series of the radio signal intensity, and some anomalies related to previous earthquakes were revealed. Except for some doubt in one case, success appears to have been obtained in all of the cases related to the 300 km circles in for the ground waves and the sky waves. For the Fresnel cases, success in two cases and one failure were seen in analysing the sky waves. The failure occurred in August/September, and might be related to the disturbed conditions of the ionosphere in summer.


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How to Cite
Righetti, F., Biagi, P. F., Maggipinto, T., Schiavulli, L., Ligonzo, T., Ermini, A., Moldovan, I. A., Moldovan, A., Buyuksarac, A., Silva, H. G., Bezzeghoud, M., Contadakis, M. E., Arabelos, D. and Xenos, T. (2012) “Wavelet analysis of the LF radio signals collected by the European VLF/LF network from July 2009 to April 2011”, Annals of Geophysics, 55(1). doi: 10.4401/ag-5188.
EARTHQUAKE PRECURSORS / Special Issue ed. by P.F. Biagi, M.E. Contadakis, M. Hayakawa and T. Maggipinto

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