Comparison of the reference mark azimuth determination methods

Danijel Šugar, Mario Brkić, Drago Špoljarić


The knowledge of the azimuth of the reference mark is of crucial importance in the determination of the declination which is defined as the ellipsoidal (geodetic) azimuth of the geomagnetic meridian. The accuracy of the azimuth determination has direct impact on the accuracy of the declination. The orientation of the Declination-Inclination Magnetometer is usually carried out by sighting the reference mark in two telescope faces in order to improve the reliability of the observations and eliminate some instrumental errors. In this paper, different coordinate as well as azimuth determination methods using GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite System) observation techniques within VPPS (High-Precision Positioning Service) and GPPS (Geodetic-Precision Positioning Service) services of the CROPOS (CROatian POsitioning System) system were explained. The azimuth determination by the observation of the Polaris was exposed and it was subsequently compared with the observation of the Sun using hour-angle and zenith-distance method. The procedure of the calculation of the geodetic azimuth from the astronomic azimuth was explained. The azimuth results obtained by different methods were compared and the recommendations on the minimal distance between repeat station and azimuth mark were given. The results shown in this paper were based on the observations taken on the POKU_SV repeat station.


Geodetic (ellipsoidal) azimuth; Astronomic azimuth; Repeat station; Reference mark; GNSS; CROPOS

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Published by INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - ISSN: 2037-416X