Long-term monthly statistics of the mid-latitude ionospheric E-layer peak electron density in the Northern geographic hemisphere during geomagnetically quiet and steadily low solar activity conditions

Anatoli Vladimirovich Pavlov, Nadezhda M. Pavlova

Abstract


Long-term hourly values of the ionospheric E-layer peak electron density, NmE, measured during the time period of 1957-2014 by 4 mid-latitude ionosondes (Wallops Island, Boulder, de l’Ebre, and Rome) in the Northern geographic hemisphere were processed to select periods of geomagnetically quiet and low solar activity conditions to calculate several descriptive statistics of NmE close to noon for each month in a year, including the mathematical expectation of NmE, the standard deviations of NmE from the mathematically expected NmE, and the NmE variation coefficient. The month-to-month variability of these descriptors allowed us to identify months of a year when they reach their extremes (maxima, minima).

Keywords


Mid-latitude ionosphere; modeling and forecasting

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DOI: https://doi.org/10.4401/ag-6969

Published by INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia - ISSN: 2037-416X