Annals of Geophysics Annals of Geophysics is an international, peer-reviewed, open-access, online journal. Annals of Geophysics welcomes contributions on primary research on Geophysics, Seismology, Volcanolgy Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Physics of the High Atmosphere. Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, INGV en-US Annals of Geophysics 1593-5213 <h4>Open-Access License</h4> <p><strong><em>No Permission Required</em></strong></p> <p><a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia</a> applies the Creative Commons Attribution License (CCAL) to all works we publish.</p> <div style="text-align: center;"> <p><a href="" rel="license"><img style="border-width: 0;" src="" alt="Creative Commons License" /></a></p> </div> <p>Under the CCAL, authors retain ownership of the copyright for their article, but authors allow anyone to download, reuse, reprint, modify, distribute, so long as the original authors and source are cited. No permission is required from the authors or the publishers.</p> <div>In most cases, appropriate attribution can be provided by simply citing the original article.</div> <div>If the item you plan to reuse is not part of a published article (e.g., a featured issue image), then please indicate the originator of the work, and the volume, issue, and date of the journal in which the item appeared. For any reuse or redistribution of a work, you must also make clear the license terms under which the work was published.</div> <div>This broad license was developed to facilitate open access to, and free use of, original works of all types. Applying this standard license to your own work will ensure your right to make your work freely and openly available. For queries about the license, please contact <p> </p> </div> Foreword Special issue Empowering communities for non-structural seismic risk mitigation: the central role of communication <p>This special issue of “Annals of Geophysics” concerns the dissemination of knowledge on the prevention of damage mainly due to non-structural elements during earthquakes and its practical application at houses, schools and offices by common citizens, companies and institutions. The seismic capacity of buildings and other civil engineering structures and infrastructures are object of regulations for design and construction, and in some cases also the design, fabrication and mounting of electrical and mechanical equipments. Consequently, even in strong earthquakes many collapses of buildings and infrastructures are avoided. However, with few exceptions, design procedures do not aim at avoiding seismic vibrations from being transferred to the structures, but enable the structures to resist to the effects of those vibrations</p> Mário Lopes Gemma Musacchio Mónica Amaral Ferrira Carlos Sousa Oliveira Copyright (c) 2021 Gemma Musacchio, Mário Lopes, Mónica Amaral Ferreira, Carlos Sousa Oliveira 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE331 SE331 10.4401/ag-8714 What scientific information on the seismic risk to non-structural elements do people need to know? Part 1: Compiling an inventory on damage to non-structural elements <p>Understanding damage to non-structural elements, identifying sources of critical issues, and how damage affects the functionality of facilities are all critical aspects for developing general recommendations concerning disaster risk management. In the present paper a review of non-structural damage caused by recent earthquakes was performed in several localities exposed to seismic hazard such as Mt. Etna in Italy, Lisbon and Azores islands in Portugal and southern Lowland in Iceland. This was needed in order to derive the most common non-structural damage framed into the local situation, which in turn is a basic requirement for a well tailored communication campaign. The observed damage to non-structural elements as derived in this study led to the conclusion that the most commonly damaged elements are partition walls, ceiling systems, non-structural vaults, chimneys, building contents and storage racks. Analyses proved that substantive efforts are needed worldwide to improve techniques for reducing damage to non-structural elements. Non-structural mitigation represents a major opportunity for immediate low-cost action to reduce the impacts of earthquakes at home, school and workplaces. Research results within the KnowRISK EU project was the reference ground upon which a wide range of tools for multi-stakeholders (students, business and citizens) to improve seismic performance of non-structural elements and reducing the associated economic losses, loss of functionality, and potential threats to life safety was designed.</p> Monica Amaral Ferreira Fabrizio Meroni Raffaele Azzaro Gemma Musacchio R. Rupakhety B. Bessason S. Thorvaldsdottir M. Lopes C.S. Oliveira Stefano Solarino Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE321 SE321 10.4401/ag-8412 What scientific information on the seismic risk to non-structural elements do people need to know? Part 2: tools for risk communication <p>The present paper describes the process of moving from a research study of most common vulnerable non-structural elements, to deliver solutions, tools and guidelines to improve understanding of and responsiveness to community concerns about seismic risk and non-structural elements.</p><p>The observed damage to non-structural elements following recent earthquakes in Italy, Portugal and Iceland, were used for designing communication tools under the KnowRISK EU project for multi-stakeholders (students, business and citizens): the Practical Guide, the Students Short Guide, the KnowRISK Portfolio of Solutions, the Move, Protect and Secure video, the augmented reality apps, the maquettes, the students notebooks, videos, board games and hands-on tools. The philosophy behind these deliverables is that some risks, once identified, can be eliminated or reduced by informing people and suggesting preventive or emergency measures. These tools are devoted to improving the seismic performance of non-structural elements and to reduce the associated economic losses, loss of functionality, and potential threats to life safety. The rationale behind the selection of the information that people need to know for converting knowledge to more safety is discussed and a description of the transference of the findings of research to communication solutions is presented.</p><p>The tools were planned following the engagement-model in risk communication to ensure that needs of communities and selected stakeholders were acknowledged, and that recipients are addressed in a way that appeals to them. Different media and communication channels such as print, television, online, face-to face communication and interviews were used for risk communication.</p> Stefano Solarino Monica Amaral Ferreira Gemma Musacchio Rajesh Rupakhety Hugo O’Neill Susanna Falsaperla Vicente Marta Mario Lopes Carlos Sousa Oliveira Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE322 SE322 10.4401/ag-8439 Non-Structural Earthquake Risk Management for Residential Buildings <div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>As buildings become more resilient against structural damage the cost of non-structural damage and their consequences becomes proportionally higher, giving non-structural damage greater importance in earthquake risk reduction. Providing residents with detailed guidance on how to evaluate their risk regarding non-structural earthquake damage, and what mitigation and preparedness options they have, can increase both home and societal earthquake resiliency. Earthquake damage data from destructive earthquakes in south Iceland in 2000 and 2008 were used to develop simple but detailed twelve-step risk-management guidelines for residents. The guidelines are based on a set of disaster-related objectives. A standard loss estimation study was used to develop guidelines for the fixed non-structural elements and photographs from inside homes that had sustained significant non-structural damage were used to develop guidelines for loose items. Virtually every item in the studied homes was considered to understand its importance and its relevance to the function of a home. Information in terms of financial, functional and emotional value were used in the guidelines to help residents decide which mitigation options to take. The photos provided valuable information by placing each item in context with its surroundings, for example, to understand the possibility of motion and consequences to other items. The proposed approach, although based on observations from residential buildings, is useful for facilities that have sensitive operations, such as offices, industrial facilities, hospitals and government services. As societies become more complex and reliant on non-structural elements, systematic and thorough studies such as the one outlined herein become an increasingly critical part of sound earthquake risk management. </span></p></div></div></div> Solveig Thorvaldsdottir Bjarni Bessason Rajesh Rupakhety Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE323 SE323 10.4401/ag-8451 Using non-structural mitigation measures to maintain business continuity: a multi-stakeholder engagement strategy <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>Encouraging property owners and individuals to adopt mitigation measures to improve the resilience of their buildings and equipments to seismic hazard has been a major challenge in many earthquake- prone countries. Few business leaders are aware of the fragility of their supply chains or other critical systems due to earthquake hazard. Bridging the gap between research production and research use is another crucial challenge for the earthquake risk research process.</p> <p>The KnowRISK project outcome is aimed at encouraging the proactive engagement of multi- stakeholders (community at large, schools, business community and local govern-ment groups) undertaking non-structural mitigation measures that will minimize earthquake losses to individuals and communities. Engaging stakeholders, taking into account their needs and inputs to maintain critical and urgent business activities, can contribute to the research findings and ensure that our data collection is thorough and complete. Engagement with stakeholders, during the whole process can lead to improved outcomes and for the development of viable solutions, for business and society, because of stakeholder’s role and influence within the organizations.</p> </div> </div> </div> Monica Amaral Ferreira Carlos Sousa Oliveira Mário Lopes Francisco Mota de Sá Gemma Musacchio Rajesh Rupakhety Danilo Reitano Isabel Pais Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE324 SE324 10.4401/ag-8559 A protocol to communicate seismic risk in schools: design, test and assessment in Italy <div class="page" title="Page 1"> <div class="layoutArea"> <div class="column"> <p>The best chance to achieve a future disaster-resilient society is through risk education in School: it has a great potential to strengthen capacity of communities to mitigate risks. The KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements) project took this opportunity and implemented a risk communication campaign for schools in Portugal, Italy, and Iceland. The idea was that suitably changes in people’s knowledge and attitude can trigger best practices. Crucial to reach such target is the raise of awareness on meaningful issues. The main challenge of the campaign was how to effectively address the mitigation of the vulnerability to earthquakes of non-structural elements, which is an issue considered to be of low priority even in the building regulations of many countries around the world.</p> <p>The campaign stood on a communication strategy that was systematized within a protocol, for 13- 15 years old students, that specifies goals, contents, learning strategy, support material, and relies on face-to-face intervention of scientists in the classroom. This protocol had training sessions bounded by assessment sessions, ex-ante and ex-post, that allowed to validate its efficacy. The training made large use of flipped learning and Episode of Situated Learning (EAS) strategy to raise student’s motivation and increase achievements. To ensure its replicability, the protocol was tested in zones matching a wide range of seismic hazard in Italy. The assessment showed the protocol be effective and ready for a wide dissemination.</p> </div> </div> </div> Gemma Musacchio Elena Eva Massimo Crescimbene Nicola Alessandro Pino Lorenzo Cugliari Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE325 SE325 10.4401/ag-8533 Seismic risk communication: let’s students show their own way <p>Risk communication has been playing an increasing role in modern society and in our lives. Normally framed to prompt reduction of vulnerability to hazards, it tackles issues ranging from prevention to preparedness and addresses a variety of stakeholders, each with a specific role within a community. However, the way to have the most effective risk communication in the long run is to engage young people: they seed the roots that shape future, increase the potential impact of risk mitigation and help build community resilience. This is the vision that drives the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia (INGV) intervention in the field of seismic risk education. The <em>“Are you taking too many risks?” </em>was a school contest that INGV carried out for the schools involved in the risk communication campaign <em>“Know your school: be safe!” </em>of the project <em>KnowRISK</em><em> (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements</em>) funded by the European Commission DG-ECHO. Students, within a framework of <em>cooperative learning</em>, were asked to develop risk communication tools, being their peers the target public. It was an experiment of public engagement in risk communication that allowed young people to express their point of view and the way they would discuss and approach risks. Cartoons, animated drawings, interviews, and videos showed the way students see risk mitigation, in the age of parkour. The details of each students’ product are a lesson learned to shape risk communication campaigns in the future.</p> Giovanna Lucia Piangiamore Susanna Falsaperla Elena Eva Gemma Musacchio Copyright (c) 2020 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE326 SE326 10.4401/ag-8396 Playing games for risk prevention: design, implementation and testing of serious games in recent European projects UPStrat-MAFA and KnowRISK <div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>In the last decade, bottom-up strategies of risk education have raised importance, making serious games to become an alternative or complementary teaching tool for enhancing skills for a collaborative and adaptive response to social-ecological challenges.<br /> This study describes issues and challenges of serious games implemented within the framework of two European projects, namely UPStrat-MAFA </span><span>(Urban Disaster Prevention Strategies using Macroseismic Fields and FAult sources) </span><span>and KnowRISK (Know your city, Reduce seISmic risK through non-structural elements); the goal is to instil in young people a proactive attitude towards the mitigation of seismic risk . </span></p><p><span>The games were tested in some dissemination events focussed on fostering seismic risk preparedness in students and improving good practices. We discuss the performance of our games even against more standard approaches to risk education. Our experience shows a rise of students’ engagement compared to standard learning activities. The games were effective as students were able to grasp the most relevant actions to reduce risk. </span></p></div></div></div> Stefano Solarino Monica Amaral Ferreira Gemma Musacchio Elena Eva Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE327 SE327 10.4401/ag-8436 Dissemination: steps towards an effective action of seismic risk reduction for non-structural damage in the KnowRISK project <p>“Move, protect, secure” were the three key points that the KnowRISK project posed at the core of its communication and dissemination strategy. This three key points enable each person, professional or not, to reduce non-structural damage caused by earthquakes. Dissemination is usually the last but never least step of a communication plan, and indeed it played a crucial role in KnowRISK for conveying the three key-point message to the widest audience.</p><p>Standard dissemination activities, such as open-door events, and internet allowed us to achieve a wide spreading of ideas and best practices, reaching more than 4000 non-professionals and almost 50000 page views of the KnowRISK website (in three years), respectively. As communication was recipient-targeted, the dissemination task of the project was similarly addressed to professionals, layman, and schools. In particular, schools were chosen in order to profit from the chain-reaction action that is capable to spread a message from students to the surrounding environment.</p> Susanna Falsaperla Gemma Musacchio Mónica Amaral Ferreira Mário Lopes Carlos Sousa Oliveira Copyright (c) 2020 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE328 SE328 10.4401/ag-8394 Earthquake induced crises: game tree approached risk communication and lessons learnt <div class="page" title="Page 1"><div class="layoutArea"><div class="column"><p><span>Earthquakes, large or even moderate, are often followed by secondary phenomena, such as landslides, tsunamis, fires and technological disasters, leading to cascading effects that may, in turn, cause severe repercussions. Before, during and after the occurrence of these events, risk communication, currently evolved to codified legislation, is a crucial factor. Policy selection in the present study is approached by the application of the risk game tree and its formation. The events studied here in view of policy making have occurred both in the historical and the instrumental era, to account for different level of exposure and anthropogenic hazards, in Greece (1894 Atlanti, 1953 Kefallinia series, 2003 and 2015 Lefkas), Italy (1976 Friuli), Japan (2011 Tōhoku) and Slovenia (1917 Brežice). In all case studies the whole disaster management cycle is examined, i.e. mitigation, preparedness, response and recovery. Disaggregation of earthquake-related direct and cascading effects, as well as risk communication are taken into account and ethical challenges are posed both to scientists and policy makers. </span></p></div></div></div> Vasiliki Kouskouna Georgios Sakkas Ina Cecić Stylianos Sakkas George Kaviris Andrea Tertulliani Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE329 SE329 10.4401/ag-8405 Living with Earthquakes: Educating masses through earthquake awareness: North East (NE) India perspective Earthquake is one of the most frightening and destructive phenomena of nature. The northeast India region, as well as its adjoining South-Asian neighbours including Myanmar and Bangladesh, is tectonically and seismically most active. The region categorized under the highest level of seismic hazard potential: Zone V, of the seismic zonation map of India, has experienced nearly 22 large (M ≥7.0) and two great earthquakes (M S ∼ 8.7) in the past 130 years. All these earthquakes caused wide-spread damage over the region. In the recent past, with rapid urbanization combined with a significant population rise as compared to those times when these great/large earthquakes occurred, the seismic vulnerability index has increased manifold. The situation demands widespread dissemination of seismic hazard and preparedness information via community engagement and highlighting on potentially tragic consequences of earthquakes by conducting extensive mock drill exercises &amp; earthquake awareness programmes. In this paper, the role and efforts of the statuary bodies in the region, such as National Disaster Management Authority (NDMA) and CSIR – Northeast Institute of Science and Technology (NEIST) and societal program of Academy of Scientific and Innovative research, to mitigate and minimize seismic hazard by extensive dissemination of earthquake information, via scientific scenario and impact assessment, is holistically compiled. Chandan Dey Santanu Baruah Bijit Kr Choudhury Timangshu Chetia Sowrav Saikia Antara Sharma Manoj K Phukan Copyright (c) 2021 Annals of Geophysics 2021-07-23 2021-07-23 64 3 SE330 SE330