It is clear that EQ preparation processes are complex and multifaceted, which call for a multidisciplinary approach. Many possible precursors have been reported and studied during the last decades, which include (just to mention some): foreshock activity, pre-slip effect, surface deformation, seismic electric signals (SES), ultra-low frequency (ULF) magnetic field anomalies, MHz-kHz electromagnetic emissions (known as EME or EMR), ULF/ELF (extremely low frequency) atmospheric electromagnetic radiation, atmospheric anomalies (such as SLHF, OLR etc.) and ionospheric (lower and upper regions) anomalies, lithosphere-atmosphere-ionosphere coupling, even abnormal animal behavior.

However, EQ precursor studies are still considered a challenging research topic, even a controversial one according to part of the scientific community. The very existence of EQ precursors has been criticized by some scientists. Despite the accumulated evidence that have been published, even for the statistical correlation of some EQ precursors, sometimes the arguments have been extended to the extreme claim that any precursory activity is impossible. However, short-term EQ prediction is too important to humanity to be simply discredited. Therefore, the research focusing on possible EQ precursors should be continued, with the aim of building up a solid ground for EQ prediction, convincing even for the most reluctant.

Considering the difficulties associated with such factors as the highly complex, multifaceted nature, and rarity of large EQs, as well as subtleties of possible pre-seismic signatures, the multidisciplinary research related to EQ precursors is calling for extensive efforts and synergies.

In this direction, it is considered very important to:

(a) Develop both ground-based and space-borne instrumentation for observables which are EQ precursors or can provide information about EQ precursors.

(b) Deploy and maintain networks of ground-based stations, as well as satellite missions for EQ precursor monitoring.

(c) Continuously record any possible precursor to large EQs to accumulate sufficient amount of data, appropriate for different kinds of analysis.

(d) Analyze precursors’ data in a multidisciplinary and combinatory way to find any evidence of their association to EQs.

(e) Study the possible mechanisms involved in the generation of different precursors.

(f) Find possible relations among different precursors.

(g) Beyond case-studies, perform statistical studies concerning individual precursors’ as well as multi-precursors’ presence before large EQs.

(h) Suggest multi-precursor schemes for the short-term prediction of large EQs.

This specific Special Issue aims at providing a collection of high-quality scientific works that will give a clear idea of the recent developments in the field of EQ precursors, covering all the above aspects of the specific research field.

Guest Editors for this Special Issue:

Stelios M. Potirakis1,2, Pier Francesco Biagi3, Masashi Hayakawa4,5


1 Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, University of West Attica, 12241 Egaleo, Greece.

2 Institute for Astronomy, Astrophysics, Space Applications and Remote Sensing, National Observatory of Athens, Metaxa and Vasileos Pavlou, Penteli, GR-15236 Athens, Greece

3 Department of Physics, University of Bari, 70126 Bari, Italy

4 Hayakawa Institute of Seismo-Electromagnetics Co., Ltd., (Hi-SEM), University of Electro-Communications (UEC), Alliance Center 521, 1-1-1 Kojimacho, Tokyo 182-0026, Japan.

5 Advanced Wireless and Communications Research Center (AWCC), University of Electro-Communications (UEC), 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Tokyo 182-8585, Japan.


Opening of the submissions: 15 June 2022


Closing of the submissions: 28 February 2023


The accepted papers are planned to be published in a special issue of Annals of Geophysics by end of Spring or early Summer of 2023.

In preparing manuscripts, authors must follow Annals of Geophysics’ author guidelines:

Papers must be submitted via the online submission system of Annals of Geophysics ( under the “Section”: “SPECIAL ISSUE: Developments in Earthquake Precursors Studies”.