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The present study proposes a theoretical modeling of simultaneous and noninvasive measurements of electrical resistivity and dielectric permittivity using a quadrupole probe on a subjacent medium. A mathematical–physical model is applied to the propagation of errors in the measurement of resistivity and permittivity based on a sensitivity functions tool. The findings are also compared with results of the classical method of analysis in the frequency domain, which is useful for determining the behavior of zero and pole frequencies in the linear time invariant circuit of the quadrupole. This study underlines that average values of electrical resistivity and dielectric permittivity can be used to estimate complex impedance over various terrains and concretes, especially when they are characterized by low levels of water saturation (content), and are analyzed within a bandwidth ranging only from low to middle frequencies. To meet the design specifications, that ensure satisfactory performances of the probe (inaccuracies of no more than 10%), the forecasts provided by the sensitivity functions approach are discussed in comparison with those foreseen by the transfer functions method (in terms of both the band of frequency f and the measurable range of resistivity ρ, or permittivity εr).
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