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Mt. Vesuvius is one of the most hazardous volcanoes in the world, due to the highly populated surrounding area, where more than 800,000 people live. It experienced various regimes of eruptive activity, from effusive to Plinian. Its last eruption, a mild effusive event, occurred on March 1944. After that the volcano started a period of quiescence, characterized by low seismicity, low deformation pattern, widespread fumaroles emissions accompanied by diffuse CO2 degassing in the crater area and CO2-rich groundwater along the southern flank and in the adjacent plain. Despite the low level of activity, Vesuvius is one of the best-monitored volcanoes in the world. During the last decades many researchers have been involved in the volcano monitoring, covering a wide range of topics, in order to discover any signals that could contribute to understand the volcano dynamics. However, in spite of so much effort, an exhaustive comprehension of the volcano system, aimed at a reliable prediction of the future activity, is far from having been reached. On the other hand, the fast technological evolution makes new instruments and methodologies available for a more sensitive monitoring in the future. [...]
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