Nuclear emulsion techniques for muography

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Cristiano Bozza
Lucia Consiglio
Nicola D’Ambrosio
Giovanni De Lellis
Chiara De Sio
Seigo Miyamoto
Ryuichi Nishiyama
Chiara Sirignano
Simona Maria Stellacci
Paolo Strolin
Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka
Valeri Tioukov


Nuclear emulsions are currently being used in the field of muography, more specifically muon radiography of volcanic edifices and fault regions. The peculiar features of such detector for cosmic muons demand appropriate data processing and analysis techniques. The paper shows the current development status of readout devices and analysis techniques developed by some research groups that established a collaborative network in Italy and Japan. An overview is given of nuclear emulsion-based detectors, from the detection principles to detector operation and set-up techniques, in connection with the expectations in terms of geophysics information. Two systems for readout are presented, one developed in the first decade of the 21st century and one that is entering duty now. The evolution in terms of data quality and speed is discussed. Finally, the most relevant data processing steps that allow working out muon absorption maps from nuclear emulsion data are described.

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How to Cite
Bozza C, Consiglio L, D’Ambrosio N, De Lellis G, De Sio C, Miyamoto S, Nishiyama R, Sirignano C, Stellacci SM, Strolin P, Tanaka HK, Tioukov V. Nuclear emulsion techniques for muography. Ann. Geophys. [Internet]. 2017Feb.14 [cited 2022Aug.18];60(1):S0109. Available from:

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