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The evaluation of infrared satellite images over active lava flows assists the identification of potentially threatened areas and thereby the overall lava inundation hazard assessment. The estimation of the lava flow's size and temperature is not trivial as the lava occupies only a small fraction (< 1 %) of a typically resolved target pixel (e. g. from Landsat 7, MODIS). Conventionally, this is solved by processing observations in at least two separate infrared spectral wavebands. We investigate the resolution limits of the Dual- Band method by means of a uniquely designed indoor analog experiment. A volcanic hotspot is simulated by an electrical heating alloy of 0.5 mm diameter installed on a plywood panel. Satellite observations are simulated by two thermographic cameras with wavebands comparable to those available from satellite data. These range from the short-wave infrared over the mid-wave infrared to the thermal infrared. In the conducted experiment, the hotspot’s pixel fraction was successively reduced by increasing the camera-to-target distance from 2 m to 38 m. We carried out three experiments with three different wire temperatures: 700 K, 920 K, and 1050 K. The estimated relative deviation between the observed and theoretical hotspot's pixel fraction is within 20 % for most distances. The estimated temperature of anomaly has stronger fluctuations.
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