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observatories are able to operate from shallow waters to deep sea, down to 4,000 m w.d., and to simultaneously monitor a broad spectrum of geophysical and environmental processes, including seismicity, geomagnetic field variations, water temperature, pressure, salinity, chemistry, currents, and gas occurrence. Moreover, they can transmit data in (near)-real-time that can be integrated with those of the on-land networks. The architecture of the seafloor observatories follows the criteria of modularity, interoperability and standardisation in terms of materials, components and communication protocols. This paper describes the technical features of the observatories, their experiments and data.
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