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activity on the errors that this conversion introduces. The second topic is related to the comparison of ionospheric topside models with experimental electron density profiles to check the ability
of the models to reproduce the observed topside shape and characteristics that determine the electron density gradients. The analysis that has been done allows pointing out the changes needed to improve
the models. Finally a third topic covers a model simulation study of the total electron content that can be encountered in GPS-to-geostationary satellite ray paths. It takes into account that the propagation
paths for such satellite-to-satellite links are very long and they have the potential to intersect regions of the ionised atmosphere where the electron density is high when the geometry is close to eclipse.
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