Climatology of ionosphericF-region disturbances

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D. N. Fotiadis
S. S. Kouris
V. Romano
B. Zolesi


After more than 60 years of research, ionospheric disturbances are today a most challenging topic of upper atmospheric
physics. Although the understanding of the thermosphere-ionosphere system has increased, quantitative
predictions of ionospheric perturbations, valid for space weather assessment, are still imprecise. Using a
long foF2 dataset, an analytical climatology of the F-region storms is presented as a function of appropriate variables.
Local phenomena are then detected.

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Fotiadis DN, Kouris SS, Romano V, Zolesi B. Climatology of ionosphericF-region disturbances. Ann. Geophys. [Internet]. 2004Dec.25 [cited 2023Dec.9];47(4). Available from:

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