Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians

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E. Mizrahi
A. H. Bilge
Y. Tulunay


The deviations of hourly f 0 F 2 from monthly medians for 20 stations in Europe during the period 1958-1998 are studied. Spectral analysis is used to show that, both for original data (for each hour) and for the deviations from monthly medians, the deterministic components are the harmonics of 11 years (solar cycle), 1 year and its harmonics, 27 days and 12 h 50.49 m (2nd harmonic of lunar rotation period L 2 ) periodicities. Using histograms for one year samples, it is shown that the deviations from monthly medians are nearly zero mean (mean < 0.5) and approximately Gaussian (relative difference range between %10 to %20) and their standard deviations are larger for daylight hours (in the range 5-7). It is shown that the amplitude distribution of the positive and negative deviations is nearly symmetrical at night hours, but asymmetrical for day hours. The positive and negative deviations are then studied separately and it is observed that the positive deviations are nearly independent of R12 except for high latitudes, but negative deviations are modulated by R12 . The 90% confidence interval for negative deviations for each station and each hour is computed as a linear model in terms of R12. After correction for local time, it is shown that for all hours the confidence intervals increase with latitude but decrease above 60N. Long-term trend analysis showed that there is an increase in the amplitude of positive deviations from monthly means irrespective of the solar conditions. Using spectral analysis it is also shown that the seasonal dependency of negative deviations is more accentuated than the seasonal dependency of positive deviations especially at low latitudes. In certain stations, it is also observed that the 4th harmonic of 1 year corresponding to a periodicity of 3 months, which is missing in f 0 F 2 data, appears in the spectra of negative variations.

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Mizrahi E, Bilge AH, Tulunay Y. Statistical properties of the deviations of f 0 F 2 from monthly medians. Ann. Geophys. [Internet]. 2002Dec.25 [cited 2022Jul.7];45(1). Available from: