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This paper summarizes the activities carried out by WP 3.1 of WG 3 of COST 296 action. The Work Package
deals mostly with medium and large ionospheric structures that impacts on GNSS signals. In the research done
by this European team, particular attention was given to the ionosphere/space weather monitoring, to the analysis
of the variability of the ionospheric plasma during quiet and disturbed conditions and to the characterization
of the behavior of low latitudes ionospheric depletions or bubbles and the spatial and temporal gradients of total electron contet.
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