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In this work, we examine the dynamical behaviour of the “single mass-springs” model for earthquake subjected to the strength due to the up flow of magma for the period of volcanism, considering the fractional viscous damping force, the fractional weakening friction and fractional power law of elastic force. The numerical simulation method used in this paper is that of Grünwald-Letnikov based on the generalization of the classical derivative, and the approximately analytical solution obtained by the harmonic balance method. The results have shown that the fractional-order derivative can affect the dynamical properties of fault rock, which is characterized by the equivalent damping coefficient and the equivalent stiffness coefficient. Moreover, the amplitude-frequency equation for the steady-state solution was established. It appears that the resonant amplitude and resonant frequency are strongly dependent on the fractional-order damping r, fractional-order friction q, the fractional deflection 𝛼, the nonlinear stiffness coefficient and the fractional viscous coefficient. We have also shown that, the recurrence time of an event, the duration time of an event and the slip size of an earthquake can be controlled by the fractional-order derivative, the fractional-order deflection and the magnitude of the magma strength. The model allowed us to better interpret the earthquake as a stick-slip motion.
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