Fundamental of ground penetrating radar in environmental and engineering applications

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A. Casas
V. Pinto
L. Rivero


Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) is a high frequency electromagnetic sounding technique that has been developed to investigate the shallow subsurface using the contrast of dielectric properties. The method operates on the simple principle that electromagnetic waves, emitted from a transmitter antenna, are reflected from buried objects and detected at another antenna, acting as receiver. GPR data is presented in the form of time-distance plots that are analogous to conventional reflection seismic records, and in fact the method has many similarities to seismic reflection method with a pulse of electromagnetic energy substituting for the elastic (seismic) energy. Nevertheless, the principles and theory of the method are based on the wave equation derived from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic wave propagation. This paper has been written for tutorial purposes, and it is hoped that it will provide the reader with a good outline of GPR presenting an overview of its theoretical basis, guidelines for interpretation and some practical field examples.

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How to Cite
Casas, A., Pinto, V. and Rivero, L. (2000) “Fundamental of ground penetrating radar in environmental and engineering applications”, Annals of Geophysics, 43(6). doi: 10.4401/ag-3689.